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Many Northern Hemisphere Country are having issues with Arctic Ownership. All of the nations in the Arctic Circle are competing for this land due to its abundance in minerals and energy producing products. There are traditional boundaries set up for countries that have marked boundaries in the arctic, but with all of the competition, these states now have to prove their boundaries, most of which are in the sea. These states want land in these areas for economic reasons, due to the fact that there might be 44 billion barrels of gas throughout the area, and also because they are great waterways for trade and other reasons.
This summer specifically, there has been an extreme amount of ice melting. The melting ice allows for bigger boats to move in and use the passage ways, and also for the oil boats and machinery to increase in these areas causing major concern for environmentalists. There is a major rush to tap the economic possibilities by Arctic Ownership, and Norway needs to figure out where they fit into their boundaries and if they are going to try and expand.
In Chile, there have been recent disputes between Chile, Peru and Bolivia about their maritime borders. Peru wants to extend its own borders in the water to include much more of the fishing areas, and even passed their own laws to this effect. Chile, of course, didn't agree with this, and promptly wrote to Peru's government saying so. Bolivia also is at stake because their government would like access to the ocean, though they are a landlocked country. The issue went to the Hague and was decided in Peru's favor, but Chile is appealing now. This issue is particularly important to the economic well-being of both Peru and Chile because so many of their exports are in the fishing industry.
In Costa Rica, there have been many problems involving border control. Many years ago, Costa Rica chose to get rid of their national army, relying on the trust of citizens and the government to protect their country. However, due to the lack of control over the borders, drugs and illegal immigrants have become very common within Costa Rica, leaving many problems within this country.
Photo: US Geological Survey/Creative Commons